How human brains are built

How human brains are built

The development of the human brain piracetol involves the orchestration of thousands of different types of cells in a matrix of billions. A wide range of molecular and cellular processes operate in the development of the brain over a long period of time, the longest of primates. Humans also have a longer childhood and adolescence for the continuous development of the brain. Due to the long period of time, the environment and education can greatly affect the final results. Of all regions, the human cortex is the most unique in nature. Currently, there is a growing understanding of the unique events that occur in the development of the human cortex. The research begins to show how human brains are built.

The human brain starts like a tube and then organizes itself fantastically. It produces special regions of greater activity of stem cells, with many more stem cells than other species. Such complicated activity allows you to develop more problems and more types of brain diseases. With such great differences from other species, it is not really possible to understand the development of the human brain by studying other animals. Recent research on human stem cells has contributed to our current understanding.

The human brain has a fantastic amount of cells and connections

B0003428 Confocal image of the brain showing cell types Adults have about 86 billion neurons, including the brain and spinal cord. There are still 100 billion glial cells. The cerebral cortex has 16 billion neurons and 160 billion synapses. Throughout the brain, there are hundreds of billions of synapses. It is very hard to believe, but it has been calculated that there are 100,000 miles of myelinated axons in each brain. To support this massive task, the adult brain uses 20% of all energy while it is 2.5% of the weight.

The fetus consumes much more energy for the brain, since it produces cells at a fantastic rate. In the fetus, 3.8 million new neurons are reached every hour for the cerebral cortex and 4.6 million for the entire brain. In late fetal life, 42 million synapses per minute are formed in the cortex. How can we produce, specify and place so many cells in the circuits?

Development of the human brain

Fetus-Brain1 The brain begins to develop all organs first and ends around the age of 30 years. It grows faster than any organ in the fourth week of the fetus and continues for years. After that, it slows down and most of the energy is concentrated in synapses, myelin, circuits, pruning and neuroplasticity. Many structures are temporary, such as specific types of stem cells and differentiated cells and the unique remodeling of circuits and cellular compartments.

During the first eight weeks, the ectoderm develops a notochord, then the neural plate and the neural groove. The neuronal folds fuse to form the neural tube. The neuropores at each end close and form the ventricular fluid systems outside the amniotic fluid. The tube forms three basic bulbs that become prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon and lower spinal cord. Throughout the tube, very specific stem cells are produced that will form the different types of brain cells.

In the next part of the fetal period, there is explosive growth everywhere to make it 40 times larger. This expansion includes broad specifications of different cell types. The cerebral hemispheres appear and develop immensely, producing grooves and convolutions. At birth, the brain is very similar to the adult brain, except that the cerebellum develops much later.

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